- Country of manufactureUkraine
- Type of fish feedGranules
- Enhanced color saturationNo
Water flea. A well - known forage for many fishes. Especially the water flea is necessary to haratsinovy and viviparous fishes, but it is possible to feed up the water flea all. Water fleas - herbivorous crustaceans, the qualitative water flea usually happens, it is filled by various seaweed and thus is an excellent vegetable additive. Chitin of water fleas - the fine ballast necessary for fishes for the correct digestion of food.
The water flea – the general "the national name" of all species of vetvistousy crustaceans (CLADOCERA). Under this name about 420 different types of the vetvistousy crustaceans belonging approximately to 10 families appear. Most often meet: water flea of a magn, water flea puleks, water flea of a longispin, moin, bosmin, hidorus, Cyd, simotsefalus, tseriodafniya. The body of the majority of vetvistousy crustaceans is strongly squeezed from sides and put into the two - fold chitinous cover fastened on a back and dispersing on the belly party. The water flea periodically dumps this cover and replaces new. The head of the water flea is in front extended in ostrenky "beak" or "hobotok" On the head there are two eyes which at completely developed copies merge in one difficult eye. Many types near it have one more small eye. On the head there are two pairs of antennas. Forward antennas - rhabdoid, very small. But back antennas are disproportionately big in comparison with a body. They are vetvist, and each branch of the antenna is supplied with long plumose shchetinka. Back antennas serve as the main body of movement vetvistousy, at the same time waving both back antennas, crustaceans make a start them and thus float short jumps. Regulating the frequency of waves of antennas, water fleas can not only "soar", but also rise in the top sheets of water or, on the contrary, leave on depth. Thus, they make vertical movements (migrations) connected with search of food, change of water temperature or time of day. The chest department of vetvistousy is shortened and consists of 4 - 6 segments, each of which is supplied in pair of legs. Females between a back surface of a body and back edge of a sink have an extensive cavity which is carrying out a task of a vyvodkovy chamber. In this bag eggs where they also develop are laid. In the summer, in warm weather, in a vyvodkovy chamber of a female not oosperms (on 50 - 100 pieces at each individual) are formed which leave only the females who are very quickly leaving mother's body. Therefore, as a rule, all water fleas caught in the summer are females. During the whole summer of a female breed parthenogenetic. With cold weather approach from some eggs males are born, and at females eggs which can develop only after fertilization by a male begin to be formed. Males at water fleas are rare, appear usually by fall and always much more small than females. After fertilization of females by them form eggs (usually no more than two), rich with a yolk and absolutely opaque. The cover with eggs forms sedlyshko, or efippiya. Efippiya freely float or fall by a bottom, they transfer freezing and drying. The dried efippiya are carried by wind. Warmly and moisture awaken eggs to life; the females capable during many generations to breed in the virgin way are brought from them. Coloring of water fleas depends on structure of the consumed food and content of oxygen in reservoir water. Color varies from green and brown to red and black. Vetvistousy crustaceans eat: monocelled seaweed, bacteria and infusorians whom they tighten in a mouth the water current created by the movement of legs. Usually, in the nature sharp increase in number of the water flea after dying off of phytoplankton is observed.
Vetvistousy crustaceans are present almost at each reservoir. But the greatest number of water fleas meets in still waters (ponds, lakes, ditches, holes water) rich with the decaying vegetable organic chemistry with not numerous population of fishes. The peak of the maximum number of the water flea in reservoirs is the share of spring and summer. Sometimes they are very much that water from their quantity to become it is red - brown.
The largest representative of a sort water flea of a magn (Daphnia magna Straus). Lives in small reservoirs (ponds, holes, forest pools). Females reach 5 - 6 mm of length, males - 2 mm, larvae - about 0,7 mm. Ripen at the age of 4 - 14 days. Give up to 20 dung each 12 - 14 days. In a laying to 80 eggs. Life expectancy - 110 - 150 days. The water flea puleks is widespread (Daphnia pulex De Geer) in small reservoirs. Crustaceans of average size, their size to 4 mm; Give up to 12 dung each 3 - 5 days. In each laying to 25 eggs. Life expectancy of 26 - 47 days.
The water flea of a longispin (Daphnia longispina Muller) their size to 4 mm. Lives both in small and in deep reservoirs. Has a number of various forms.
Simotsefalus (Simoctphalus) – the flat crustaceans who are often painted in red color. Habitat superficial reservoirs with still water. Length of their body fluctuates from 2 to 4 mm.
Tseriodafniiya (Ceriodaphnia), a form and the size is similar to the previous types. Same habitat.
Moina - "zhivorodka" – (Moina macrocopa, M. rectirostris). Females reach length to 1,7 mm, males - to 1 mm, a larva - about 0,5 mm. Ripen in 3 - 4 days. Give up to 7 dung of each 1 - 2 day. In a laying to 53 eggs. Life expectancy 22 days. Moina as fodder object has a number of advantages before other types of water fleas. The sizes of an adult moina seldom exceed 1 mm that allows to use it at bringing up of whitebaits whereas the size of other types of water fleas reaches 4 mm. The chitinous cover of a moina is much softer. Molod different types of aquarian fishes when feeding moiny grows much quicker and earlier reaches puberty, than when feeding by other types of forages. The biochemical analysis showed that nutritional value of Moina macrocopa is 20% higher, than Daphnia magna. The organism of a moina contains more than 50% of protein. Speed of reproduction is approximately three times higher than it, than at the water flea puleks.
Bosmina (Bosmina) one of the smallest representatives of vetvistousy crustaceans with long beak - shaped appendages on the head. Bosmina often come across when catching water fleas – they very much are similar to them, however twice more small. These crustaceans of black color in a huge number meet along coast and in congestions of water plants.
Hidorus (Chydorus) small crustaceans, are characteristic the rounded shape, and the small sizes. Vetvistousy crustaceans (Cladocera) – one of the best aquarian forages for medium - sized species of fish, and also thresh practically all types. Fishes eat them willingly, with appetite, and grow on them much better, than on many other types of forages.
Some types of water fleas specially cultivate in fish breeding farms as a high - valuable forage for thresh fishes. Water fleas are one of the fullest on structure of aquarian forages. High content of protein, a large number of minerals and vitamins, optimum amino - acid composition of protein – all this does the water flea by very popular forage for aquarian fishes at aquarians of the whole world.