STH methanol for hromatogr. (3 ml)
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- In detail
Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, carbinol, methylhydrate, methyl hydroxide) — CH3OH, the elementary monoatomic alcohol, colorless poisonous liquid. Methanol is the first representative of homologous series of monoatomic alcohol.
With air in volume concentrations of 6,72 — 36,5% forms explosive mixes (temperature of flash of 15,6 °C). Methanol mixes up in any ratios with water and the majority of organic solvents. In organic chemistry methanol is used as solvent.
Methanol is used in the gas industry for fight against formation of hydrates (because of the low temperature of freezing and good solubility). In organic synthesis methanol is applied to production of formaldehyde, formalin, acetic acid and number of ethers (for example, MTBE and DME), isoprene, etc.
Its greatest number goes for production of formaldehyde which is used for production of carbamide - formaldehyde and phenol - formaldehyde resins. Significant amounts of CH3OH use in the paint - and - varnish industry for production of solvents by production of varnishes. Besides, it is applied (restrictedly because of hygroscopicity and flaking) as additive to liquid fuel to internal combustion engines. It is used in fuel cells.
Thanks to high octane value that allows to increase extent of compression to 16 and the power power of charge, bigger for 20% , on the basis of methanol and air, methanol is used for gas station of racing motorcycles and cars. Methanol burns in the air environment, and at its oxidation carbon dioxide and water is formed:
For receiving the biodiesel vegetable oil pereeterifitsirutsya by methanol at temperature of 60 °C and standard atmosphere pressure approximately so: 1 t of oil + 200 kg of methanol + potassium hydroxide or sodium.
In many countries methanol is applied as denaturant additive to ethanol by production of perfumery. In Russia use of methanol in consumer goods is forbidden.
At gas production hydrates can be formed in trunks of wells, trade communications and the main gas pipelines. Being deposited on walls of pipes, hydrates sharply reduce their capacity. For fight against formation of hydrates on gas fields enter different inhibitors (methyl alcohol, glycols) into wells and pipelines.
Operation of fuel cells is based on oxidation reaction of methanol on the catalyst in carbon dioxide. Water is emitted on the cathode. Protons (H + ) pass through protonoobmenny membrane to the cathode where they react with oxygen and form water. Electrons pass through external chain from the anode to the cathode supplying with energy external loading.
On the CH3OH anode + H2O → CO2 + 6H + + 6e−
On the cathode 1.5O2 + 6H + + 6e− → 3H2O
The general for the fuel cell: CH3OH + 1,5O2 → CO2 + 2H2O