Polycapillary cores for hydrogen storage, hydrogen storage
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Polycapillary cores for storage of hydrogen with a big pressure
The modern concept of sustainable development and economically acceptable world power supply is focused on use of nuclear fuel in combination with "circulation" of the hydrogen emitted from pure natural water. It is known that hydrogen has higher energy content (33,3 kWh/kg) in comparison with 13 kWh/kg at gasoline and 13,9 kWh/kg at natural gas. At all advantages hydrogen possesses two essential shortcomings — very low density and potential of explosion. The way of storage of hydrogen in microporous structures, first of all, in microspheres and capillaries is perspective.
In glass microspheres at the room temperature it is possible to receive the mass content of hydrogen of 26% and density concerning density of liquid hydrogen 0.6, and in quartz microspheres at a temperature of 80 To the mass content of 42% and density concerning density of liquid hydrogen 1,25. The essential lack of this way — the requirement of heating of microstructures up to the temperatures of 470-900 To for filling and extraction of hydrogen that leads to increase in energy consumption, and in case of their use in hydrogen accumulators for cars where heating of microporous structure needs to be carried out repeatedly, such way can be energetically unprofitable.
High content of hydrogen and other gases can be reached, using capillaries. In this case, using capillaries with a thin cover it is possible to create structure which is filled not due to hydrogen diffusion, and by direct filling with gas of high pressure through one open end of a capillary. As the technology of a pulling of capillaries provides preservation of similarity of capillaries, that is preservation of the relation of thickness of a cover to diameter of capillaries, strength characteristics of initial capillaries with a big diameter and the extended capillary with a small diameter have to be identical. At the same time capillaries with a small diameter can raise the strength characteristics due to thinning of a cover and decrease in maintenance of defects of structure in it.
Polycapillary structures with filling with gas through the open ends allow to create accumulators of hydrogen of the most various designs and practically any sizes from hydrogen accumulators for portable power supplies (mobile phones, computers, household appliances) to hydrogen accumulators for transport and a space complex. At the same time the high specific content of hydrogen, lack of the losses inherent, for example, in cryogenic options of storage and transport, high vzryvo-and fire safety create good prerequisites for development of this direction of receiving and accumulation of hydrogen on the basis of the NPP.
Specialists of the enterprise developed technologies for production of prototypes of polycapillary cores for storage of hydrogen on the basis of high-strength glasses with a diameter of capillaries about 100 microns in a cylindrical part and 5 microns in the field of narrowing through which filling of capillaries is carried out. The made samples showed a possibility of achievement of pressure of gas more than 150 MPas. Besides, samples long (more than 50 m) monocapillaries for storage of gases were made with a big pressure.
Glass structures with metal inclusions
Such structures turn out if to fill some channels in a preform with metal which temperature of melting is slightly lower than temperature at which pulling of a preform is made. At the same time a part of canals in the turned-out structure will be filled with metal. The minimum diameter of the turned-out threads depends on coefficient of a superficial tension of the melted metal on border with glass and can make tens of nanometers. A configuration of metal inclusions will be defined by appointment of structure.
Examples of the samples of the structures containing metal inclusions, developed and made in LLC TOSS:
Microstructural fiber with the metal wires parallel to a core. Such fiber can be used for generation of the second harmonica of optical radiation and modulation of a phase of optical radiation when giving of the operating tension on wires and also as the fiber-optical device polarizing optical radiation;
the Metal-dielectric environment on the basis of the uporyadochenno-located metallic threads in a glass matrix. Such material can possess hyperbolic dispersion and be used as a polarizer in radio, TGts and optical range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation;
Prototype of the sensor of accelerations with capacitor sensors of shift and traffic control of measuring weight.
The glass-metal structure can be used as the stator of the microelectric motor which rotor is radially magnetized cylinder from ferromagnetic material (for example, NdFeB). The cylindrical stator has the central opening for placement of a rotor and the metallic threads parallel to a cylinder axis. Switching conductors by means of the external switchboard, it is possible to create the rotating magnetic field entraining a rotor. Use of fiber glass technology allows to create electric motors with a diameter of stator less than 1 mm.
Specialists of LLC TOSS developed manufacturing techniques of such stators and a number of prototypes of microelectric motors with a frequency of rotations up to 10000 rpm, the supply voltage of 0.5 V and with an external diameter of 2.5 mm is made.
Developers and technologists of LLC TOSS develop for a number of years and make experimental samples of various glass structures which were used and are used when carrying out scientific research in the leading scientific groups in Russia and abroad and when developing high-tech production. Were developed:
Photon and crystal fibers
These fibers direct light radiation due to reflection from a regular periodic cover which for a number of the directions of distribution and lengths of waves of radiation has the forbidden zone. At the same time light can spread in a hollow core of fiber in this connection nonlinearity in such fibers is small, also as well as the losses connected with absorption in material (optical glass). Examples of such fibers:
Fiber for transfer of big light power with a hollow core 
Fiber with a big difference of constants of distribution orthogonally the polarized waves with a hollow core 
In these fibers light spreads on the continuous or structured core, and the cover represents periodic or close to periodic, structure with average effective index of refraction, smaller, than at a core. Owing to strong localization of the field in a core, nonlinearity of such fibers is rather big and they can be used for observation of nonlinear effects, such as generation of a supercontinuum, optical harmonicas, total and differential frequencies at excitement of fibers short and powerful light impulses. Use for production of fibers of the multicomponent optical glasses having nonlinearity is about 2 orders higher, than in quartz glass, allows to observe nonlinear effects on short lengths of fibers that allows to reduce influence of losses, in optical glasses which can reach 3 dB/m. Examples of such fibers:
Fiber with a big difference of constants of distribution orthogonally the polarized waves with a continuous core
Fiber for generation of the superbroadband superkontiniuum occupying more than 2 octaves on frequency. For generation the core formed by crossing of two edges forming an elementary cell in a cover is used.
Fibers for observation of transformations of frequencies with the core modified by nanoopenings
Process of development of fibers included calculation of distribution of fields in the section of fiber and calculation of dispersion of group speeds for the chosen cross fashion of fiber, and also nonlinearity coefficients.
For carrying out calculations the method of flat waves considering possible anisotropy of material of which fiber, and also a method of the extending bunches with use of own program modules is made was used.