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Phenols, epoxides

Phenols, epoxides

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Ukraine, Lvov
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Description
Phenol (hydroxibenzene, ustar. carbolic acid) C6H5OH — the simplest representative of class of phenols. The colourless acicular crystals which are turning pink on air because of the oxidation leading to formation of the painted substances. Possess specific smell of gouache. Let's dissolve in water (6 g on 100 g of water), in solutions of alkalis, in alcohol, in benzene, in acetone. 5% solution in water — the antiseptic agent which is widely applied in medicine.
As of 2006 world consumption of phenol has the following structure:

44% of phenol are spent for production of bisphenol-Ç which, in turn, is used for production of polycarbon and epoxies;
30% of phenol are spent for production of phenol-formaldehyde resins;
12% of phenol hydrogenation turn into the cyclohexanol used for receiving synthetic fibers — nylon and capron;
other 14% are spent for other needs, including for production of antioxidants (ionol), nonionic surfactant — the polyhydroxyethylated alkylphenols (neonola), other phenols (cresols), medicines (aspirin), antiseptic agents (xeroform) and pesticides. Solution of 1,4% of phenol is applied in medicine (orasept) as anesthetic and antiseptic.

Phenol and its derivatives cause the preserving properties of smoking smoke. Also phenol is used as preservative in vaccines.
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