For increase in productivity of agricultural cultures use mineral and organic nitrogen fertilizers.
For ensuring growth (vegetation) of agricultural plants to the soil it is necessary to introduce the mineral nitrogen fertilizers containing nitrogen in the form of ammoniyno-amide functional groups or connections. Nitrogen in the form of a nitrate nitritnykh of forms are not used in the course of vegetation of plants.
The ammoniyno-amide forms of nitrogen fertilizers brought in the soil are used in the direct useful direction – acquired by plants, and also spent in not the useful (harmful) directions: are taken out in atmospheric air, are washed away from the soil and undergo microbiological oxidation – process of a nitrification with transformation of an ammoniyno-amide form of nitrogen in nitrate.
Process of a nitrification of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen is the most significant in losses and absorbs up to 50% of the brought ammoniyno-amide nitrogen.
The nitrate form of nitrogen from the soil is absorbed by plants and worsens their quality, is washed away in reservoirs of different types and in groundwater worsening their sanitary qualities, and also undergoes microbiological restoration to nitrites, oxides - nitrous oxides, and nitrogen.
Nitrites and nitrates getting with food and water into a human body and animals are restored to nitrosamines which are carcinogens and decompose cells of a liver.
The enterprises of chemical industry produce mineral nitrogen fertilizers for use in agriculture in such assortment:
- ammonia liquid – an ammoniyny form of nitrogen,
- ammonia in the form of water solution - ammoniac water with various concentration of ammonia - an ammoniyny form of nitrogen,
- ugleammoniyny salt – ammonium a carbonate – salt of ammonia and coal acid - an ammoniyny form of nitrogen,
- ammonium sulfate - salt of ammonia and sulfuric acid - an ammoniyny form of nitrogen,
- ammonium nitrate – ammonium nitrate – salt of ammonia and nitric acid - ammoniyny and nitrate forms of nitrogen,
- a carbamide – hydrazine of coal acid – a product of interaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide - an amide form of nitrogen,
- KAS – a carbamide plus ammonium nitrate – water solution of a carbamide and ammonium nitrate with the content of the general nitrogen (% of masses): 32; 30; 28 – amide, ammoniyny and nitrate forms of nitrogen.
Organic nitrogen fertilizers are the waste of livestock production of a biological origin containing chemical nitrogen-containing functional groups in the structure - amide, ammoniyny and nitrate forms of nitrogen.
Apply himkata to decrease in losses of ammoniyno-amide forms of nitrogen of mineral and organic fertilizers - nitrification inhibitors which effectively oppress activity of microorganisms – nitrifiers and minimum oppress activity of useful microorganisms of microflora of the soil, are nontoxical for plants, animals and the person.
Use of inhibitors of a nitrification on the example of KASOV allows to get a number of economic and ecological advantages in nitrogen-containing fertilizers:
- to reduce losses of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen and to cut a fertilizer consumption on 30% without decrease in productivity,
- to reduce the volume of consumption of fertilizer and costs of its transportation and storage, - to carry out one-time introduction of fertilizer, having reduced costs of their introduction, including labor costs,
- to reduce education nitrite - nitrate forms of nitrogen that reduces their contents in commodity agricultural production and sewage in reservoirs, and also emission of greenhouse gases.
It is known that ammoniyno-amide nitrogen of mineral fertilizers after entering into the soil is acquired by plants during vegetation, and partially to 25% under the influence of microorganisms quickly is oxidized to nitrite - nitrate forms. This process of oxidation is called nitrifications, and its speed increases in the damp and warm soil. Nitrite-nitrate forms of nitrogen are not used by plants for vegetation, but consumed by them and are persons and animals, harmful to a potrebiteleniye.
When using inhibitors of a nitrification process of microbiological oxidation of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen to nitrite - nitrate forms therefore it is possible to receive the following positive results is slowed down:
- To increase a share of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen of fertilizer, the vegetation consumed by plants for process;
- To reduce respectively a share of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen of mineral fertilizer that microbiological is oxidized to nitritnogo-nitrate forms of nitrogen;
- To increase quality of agricultural products on indicators of content of nitrites and nitrates;
- To replace repeated introduction of mineral fertilizers with disposable.
Effective inhibitor of a nitrification of ammoniyno-amide nitrogen of mineral fertilizers is a 3-metilpirazol who in Germany is used for production of the stabilized liquid complex fertilizers (KAS-32), and also is carbamide nitrification inhibitor.
By results of the conducted scientific researches by National University Bioresursov and Environmental management of Ukraine it is proved:
introduction to composition of nitrogen fertilizers of inhibitor of a nitrification of a 3-metilpirazol PROMOTES fixing of the most part of mineral nitrogen (ammoniyno-amide) and to decrease in content of nitrate nitrogen. The specified changes in the nutritious mode of soils positively influence passing of processes of growth and development of root system and plants in general, promote increase in their productivity and quality due to increase in efficiency of nitrogen.