ре�жима an irrigation it is necessary for a right choice пони�мать the term "evapotranspiration" (ET). Evapotranspiration - the evaporation sum from a surface of the soil and evaporation from a surface of leaves as a result of breath of plants. Size ET depends on factors of environment and характери�стик plants. It увеличивает�ся in process of increase in solar radiation, temperature and speed of wind, and also an index of development of a sheet surface. ET умень�шается as увеличи�вается relative humidity, or an ustyitsa of a plant are closed because of a stress. As a result ороше�ния costs of an evapotranspiration have to be compensated.
необ�ходимо to design irrigating systems it обра�зом to carry out in 24 hours application of volume of water in millimeters, equal максималь�ному to ET indicator in this district on this culture. На�пример, in the conditions of Krasnodar Krai maximum показа�тель ET is equal to 11 mm, in the conditions of a midland of Russia - 5 - 6 mm. As a rule, мож�но to learn average values of ET on local метеороло�гических stations. Besides, in that case when the irrigation for the purpose of a water - supply in a korneobitayemy layer on несколь�ко is carried out days (for example, in a case ис�пользования frontal cars time for their stage for an initial position is required), необходи�мо to consider availability of moisture in бо�лее low layers of earth and it под�верженность erosion.
At each irrigating car - the advantages. . .
Now in индустри�альных potato farms of the USA, Europe, Australia and Asia are in the greatest demand self - propelled dozhdevalny уста�новки. Business executives note their high uniformnost (90 - 95 percent), universality (in relation to other cultures in a crop rotation), small expenses тру�да at occupation of big squares (from 1 to 200 hectares) and a possibility of application of a himigation (introduction by injection into irrigational system of means of protection расте�ний, fertilizers and agrochemicals).
Depending on конфигура�ции the field and some other conditions, the Regioninvestagro company offers сле�дующие types of cars:
1. Krugovyemashina (pivota).
Can work at slopes to 15% . The special device - a wing of a dopoliv of corners can be used to watering of corners of the field. For example, at the area of a circle in 53 hectares the irrigated area can be increased to 63 hectares (at the area of a square of 64 hectares). Pressure on an entrance rather low - 2,5.. . 3 atm.
The circular machine can при�меняться on several fields in case it was manufactured as towed. This option allows to lower even more стои�мость an irrigation.
2. Linear (frontal) cars.
Can use water from ги�дрантов or from an open channel. In comparison with circular маши�нами, have not only big labor input, but also bigger efficiency of the area of the farmland (up to 99% ). This type of watering is also suitable for carrying out a himigation. Linear cars can be developed and towed.